Vitamin C

Citrus fruit are packed with vitamin C

Vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid, Cevitamin acid, is water soluble and a potent antioxidant.Most animals synthesize their own vitamin C, but humans, apes and guinea pigs must rely upon dietary sources.
It plays a primary role in the formation of collagen, which is important for the growth and repair of body-tissue cells, gums, blood vessels, bones and teeth.
Vitamin C helps in the body’s absorption of iron. It is used up rapidly under stress conditions.
Vitamin C prevents the oxidation of bad (LDL) cholesterol.
Caution: Don’t chew vitamin C tablets or let the vitamin remain on your teeth. The ascorbic acid in the tablet can destroy your teeth.
Linus Pauling is the man who claimed that large doses of vitamin C could help us fight diseases and fight off the common cold.
More about vitamin C at the Linus Pauling Institute

Function of vitamin C

Vitamin C can heal wounds, burns and bleeding gums. It can increase effectiveness of drugs used to treat urinary tract infections.
Vitamin C can speed up recovery after surgery, help decreasing blood cholesterol and it is aid in preventing many types of viral and bacterial infections and generally potentiate the immune system. It offers protection against many forms of cancer by counteracting formation of nitrosamines (cancer causing substances). It can also act as an natural laxative, lower incidences of blood clots in veins. Aid in treatment and prevention of common cold. Extend life by enabling protein cells to hold together. Increase the absorption of inorganic iron. Reduce effects of many allergy producing substances. Help lower blood pressure and reduce bone loss particularly in older men. It prevents scurvy.
Vitamin C is one of the most widely taken supplements.
It is available in just about every form a vitamin can take, including tablets, capsules, lozenges, time release tablets, syrups, powders and chewable wafers.
The form that is pure vitamin C is derived from corn dextrose.
The difference in “natural” or “organic” vitamin C and ordinary ascorbic acid is primarily the individual’s ability to digest it.
The best vitamin C supplement is one that contains the complete C complex of bioflavonoids, hesperidin and rutin.
Tablets and capsules are usually supplied in strengths up to 1000mg. and in the powder form sometimes up to 5000mg.
Daily doses most often used are 500mg to 4g.
Rose hips vitamin C contains bioflavonoids and other enzymes that help C assimilate. They are the richest natural source of vitamin C. (The C is actually manufactured under the bud of the rose- called hip). Areola C is made with Areola berries.

Advice from Dr. Mindell on taking vitamin C:
Taking it twice a day to maintain constant high level of vitamin C. Because vitamin C is excreted in two to three hours, depending on the quantity of food in the stomach, and it is important to maintain high level of vitamin C in the blood stream at all times.
If you are taking more than 750mg. daily a magnesium supplement is suggested to deterrent against kidney stones.
Carbon monoxide destroys vitamin C, so city dwellers should definitely up their intake. If you are on the pill you need extra dosage of vitamin C.
To reduce the severity of colds take 1000mg. of vitamin C twice daily. It’s been shown to decrease the histamine in the body by 40%.

Foods rich in vitamin C

Citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes,cantaloupe, cauliflower, potatoes, and peppers.
Here is a full list of foods and herbs loaded with vitamin C.

Signs of deficiency

Scurvy

Signs of excess

Excessive intake can cause oxalic and uric acid stone formation , though taking magnesium, B6 and with sufficient water intake this can be rectified. Occasional very high doses (more than 10g daily) can cause unpleasant side effects, such as diarrhea, excess urination and skin rashes. If any of these occur, cut back on your dosage.

Recommended daily dosage

The RDI/RDA for adults is 60 mg. Higher doses are recommended during pregnancy and lactation: 70-95mg. Smokers and older people have greater need of vitamin C.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon

Further reading
Linus Pauling Institute
News medical life sciences
United nations FAO WHO collaboration FAO.ORG

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplements
  3. Medical news today

PABA Para-Aminobenzoic Acid

PABA is one of the newer members of the B complex family. It is water soluble, usually measured in milligrams. Can be synthesized in the body. No RDI/RDA has yet been established. Helps form folic acid and is important in the utilization of protein. Helps in the assimilation- and therefore the effectiveness of pantothenic acid.

Function of PABA

PABA keeps skin healthy and smooth and can reduce the pain of burns. It is help in delaying wrinkles, helps restore natural color to your hair.
Some people claim that combination of folic acid and PABA has returned their graying hair to its natural color. It has worked on animals, so it is certainly worth a try for anyone looking for a alternative to hair dye. For this purpose, 1000mg daily for six days a week is a viable regimen. If you are taking penicillin, your PABA intake should be increased, with food or supplements.

Foods rich in PABA

Liver, Brewer’s yeast, kidney, whole grains, rice, bran, wheat germ and molasses.
Good B-complex capsules as well as high-quality multi vitamins often contain 30-100 mg. Available in 30-1000mg. strengths in regular and time release forms.

Signs of deficiency

Eczema

Signs of excess

No known toxic effects, but long term programs of high dosages are not recommended.
Symptoms that might indicate oversupply of PABA are usually nausea and vomiting.
Excessive amounts of PABA in certain individuals may have negative effect on the liver, kidneys and heart.

Recommended daily dosage

No RDI/RDA has yet been established.

To buy

I-herb
Ebay

Further reading

Web md
Health library
Science direct

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011

Inositol, vitamin B8

Inositol is water soluble and a member of the B complex group, and a lipotopic. It metabolizes fat and cholesterol. Inositol is an aid in redistribution of body fat. It combines with choline to form lecithin.

Inositol is often referred to as vitamin B8, but it is not actually a vitamin. It’s a type of sugar that influences the insulin response and several hormones associated with mood and cognition. Inositol also has antioxidant properties that fight the damaging effects of free radicals in the brain, circulatory system, and other body tissues.

D-chiro-inositol, inositol hexaphosphate (often referred to as “IP6”) and the compound myo-inositol are the most widely used inositol supplements. They are generally considered safe if taken appropriately.

Daily dietary value have not been established, but the average healthy adult gets approximately 1g a day. Like choline it has been found to be important in nourishing brain cells.

Function of Inositol

Helps lower cholesterol levels. Promotes healthy hair and is an aid in preventing hair loss and helps preventing eczema. Inositol can produce a calming effect.

Foods rich in inositol vitamin B8

Liver, brewer’s yeast, dried lima beans, beef brain and heart. Cantaloupe,grapefruit, raisins, wheat germ, unrefined molasses, peanuts, cabbage.
It is recommended to take inositol with choline and your other B vitamins. If you are a heavy coffee drinker you probably need supplemental inositol.
If you take lecithin, it is advised to take supplement of chelated calcium to keep your phosphorus and calcium in balance, as choline and inositol seem to raise phosphorus levels. A good way to maximize the effectiveness of vitamin E is to take enough inositol and choline.
In supplements:
As with choline, 6 soy based lecithin capsules contain approximately 244 mg each of inositol and choline. Available in lecithin powders that mix well with liquid. Most B complex supplements contain approximately 100mg. of choline and inositol.

Signs of deficiency

Eczema

Signs of excess

No known toxic effects.

Recommended daily dosage

Daily dietary value have not been established, but the average healthy adult gets approximately 1g a day. Daily doses most often used are 250-500mg.
Water, sulfa drugs, estrogen, food processing, alcohol and coffee are enemies of inositol.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon
Ebay

Further reading

Healthline
Healthline
E Medicine health
Very well mind

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. Very well mind

Folic acid (Folacin, Folate)

In 100g of parsley are 116μg, 270μg in 100g kale, 239μg in 100g broccoli, 128μg in 100g crispbread and 103μg in 100g garlic.

Function of folic acid

Yet another member of the B complex family, water soluble, also known as Bc, vitamin M or Vitamin B9. Folic acid is essential to the formulation of red blood cells. It is an aid in protein metabolism. Folic acid is important for the production of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA).
Folic acid is essential for division of body cells. It is needed for utilization of sugar and amino acids.
Folic acid can lower homocysteine levels and reduce risk of heart disease. Help protect against birth defects such as spina bifida and it is recommended to help improve lactation for nursing mothers.
Folic acid is an aid in protection against parasites and food poisoning. It can promote healthier looking skin and act as an analgesic for pain.
May delay hair graying when used in conjunction with pathogenic acid and PABA. Folic acid can increase appetite when you are run down and not willing to eat. In likeness with B12 it acts as a prevention for canker sores and it helps ward off anemia.
Folic acid combined with B 12 can be a most effective revitaliser.
For women it is important to get enough folic acid and B6 vitamin. Just 400 mcg of folic acid with 2-10 mg of B6 can reduce your risk of heart attack by 42%.

If you are trying to get pregnant, folic acid can help both men and women, 400mcg of folic acid daily can help increase fertility in women and aid in upping sperm counts in men. (1)

High vitamin C intake increases excretion of folic acid, and anyone taking more than 2 g of C should probably up their folic acid intake.
If you are a heavy drinker, it is advisable to increase your folic acid intake the same goes for choline and B12.

Foods rich in folic acid

Deep green leafy vegetables, carrots, yeast, liver, egg yolk, cantaloupe, artichokes, apricots, pumpkins, avocados, beans, whole and dark rye flour. Here is a full list of foods rich in folate.

Signs of deficiency

Nutritional macrocytic anemia.

Signs of excess

Not known toxic effects, though a few people experience allergic skin reactions. Excess folic acid can mask anemia created by B12 deficiency.

Recommended daily dosage

Adults 180-200 mcg
Pregnant 360-400 mcg
Nursing mothers 280 mcg the first six months and 260 mcg the second six months.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon
Ebay

Further reading

Women’s health
Web MD
Healthline
Malaria world.

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplements
  3. Medical news today

Choline

A cup of broccoli is 72mg of choline or approximately 12% of daily value.

Choline is a member of the B complex family and a lipotropic or fat emulsifier. It works well with inositol, another B complex family member, to utilize fats and cholesterol. Choline may be sold under the name of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylinositol.
If you are often nervous or “twitchy” it might help to increase choline. If you are taking lecithin, you probably need a chelated calcium supplement to keep your phosphorus and calcium in balance, since choline seems to increase the body’s phosphorus. Try getting some choline in your diet as a way to improve memory. Large doses of choline over a long period of time, may produce a deficiency of B6.
Heavy drinkers need to make sure the liver gets choline to do the extra work.

Function of choline

Choline seems to emulsify cholesterol so that it doesn’t settle on artery walls or in the gallbladder, therefore helps control cholesterol buildup. The utilization of choline in the body depends on vitamin B12, folic acid and the amino acid L-carnitine. Choline assists in conquering the problem of memory loss in later years (doses of 1-5g a day)
Choline is an aid in sending of nerve impulses, specifically those in the brain used in the formation of memory. It is also an aid in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
It helps eliminate poisons and drugs from your system by aiding the liver. It can produce a soothing effect.

Foods rich in choline

Egg yolks, beef brain and heart, green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver wheat germ, and, in small amounts, lecithin.

Signs of deficiency

May result in cirrhosis and fatty degeneration of liver, hardening of the arteries and possibly Alzheimer’s disease

Signs of excess

Not known

Recommended daily dosage

No RDA has been established, though it’s estimated that the average adult diet contains between 500 and 900mg a day.
Water, sulfa drugs, estrogen, alcohol and processed food can stand in the way of choline being absorbed.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon
Ebay

Further reading

Web MD
Science direct
Healthline
Very well health

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplements

Biotin (Coenzyme or vitamin H)

100 grams raw kale contains 36 μg of biotin.

A member of the B complex family it is water soluble and contains sulfur. Synergistic with B2, B6, niacin, A. Biotin is mostly known for it’s role in maintaining healthy skin, nails and hair.

Function of Biotin

Biotin is essential for normal metabolism of fat and protein. Synthesis of ascorbic acid requires biotin. Biotin is an aid in keeping hair from turning gray. It is help in preventive treatment for baldness. It can ease muscle pain. Biotin can alleviate eczema and dermatitis. It helps prevent and heal cracked, split and brittle nails.

Foods rich in Biotin

Liver, egg yolk, soy flour, cauliflower, cheese, brewer’s yeast, milk, peanut butter, salmon, spinach and unpolished rice. Here is a full list of foods with high value of biotin.
If you drink high protein shakes with raw eggs, you probably need Biotin supplementation.
Be sure you are getting at least 25mcg a day if you are on antibiotics or sulfa drugs.
“To help heal cracked, peeling or brittle nails, try 300mcg daily for three months, if you notice an improvement cut back on the daily dosage to RDA daily values. But if there is no improvement, stop taking the supplement and consult a dermatologist.”(1)

Signs of deficiency

Eczema of face and body, extreme exhaustion, impairment of fat metabolism. It can cause alopecia and depression.
Some foods can prevent absorption, raw egg white because it contains avidin a protein that prevents biotin absorption. Water in large quantities because of the water soluble aspects, sulfa drugs, estrogen, alcohol and some food processing techniques can lead to biotin deficiency.

Signs of excess

There are no known cases of biotin toxicity according to Earl Mindell’s vitamin bible.

Recommended daily dosage

Adults 30mcg

Biotin can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Raw eggs prevent absorption by the body. Biotin is usually included in most B-complex supplements and multi vitamin tablets. Daily doses most often used are 25-300mcg.

To buy

Amazon
I-herb
Ebay

Further reading

Health line on Biotin and hair growth
Books on Biotin

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplements
  3. Facty Health

Vitamin B15 (Pangamic acid, DMG, Dimethylglycine)

B15 in water soluble. It is not a vitamin in the strict sense and essential requirements for diet has not been proved. I want to keep it here because of its ability to speed recovery from fatigue. Qualities also linked to other B vitamins like B3 who can increase energy through proper utilisation of food , B4 that helps alleviate fatigue, B5 that can prevent fatigue and B12 that can increase energy. B15 works much like vitamin E in that it is an antioxidant.
Action is often improved by being taken with vitamins A and E.

Function of vitamin B 15

According to Earl Mindell’s New vitamin bible B15 can extend life span of cells. Neutralise craving for liquor and protect the liver from cirrhosis and it works to ward off hangovers. It works in recovery from fatigue. B15 can lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against pollutants and can therefore relieve symptoms of angina and asthma. B15 also referred to as DMG can stimulate immunity responses and aid in protein synthesis.

Foods rich in vitamin B 15

Brewer’s yeast, whole brown rice, whole grains, pumpkin seeds and sesame seeds. Because its essential requirement for diet has not been proved there is no list of foods available.

Signs of deficiency

There is limited research on B15 but indications point to glandular and nerve disorders, heart disease and diminished oxygenation of living tissue.

Signs of excess

There have been no reported cases of toxicity according to Earl Mindell’s New vitamin bible. Some people say they have experienced nausea on beginning a B15 regimen, but this usually disappears in few days and can be alleviated by taking B15 after the day’s largest meal.

Recommended daily dosage

Not established.
Daily dose often used are 50-150mg.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon
Ebay

Further reading

Web MD
Building wellness with DMG

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011

Vitamin B 12

Taking B12 orally, under the tongue has worked for many people, I recommend that you try out what product suits you.

Vitamin B 12 is like the rest of the B complex family water soluble. Although unique among water soluble vitamins because it can be stored in the body ; it can take take up to three years to deplete your supply. B 12 is effective even in small doses. Commonly known as the “red vitamin” also cyanocobalamin. Cyanocobalamin is the commercially available form of vitamin B 12 used in vitamin pills.
The only vitamin that contains essential mineral elements. B 12 is not well assimilated through the stomach and it needs to be combined with calcium during absorption to properly benefit the body.
A diet low in B 1 and high in folic acid (such as vegetarian diet) often hides a vitamin B 12 deficiency.
A properly functioning thyroid gland helps B 12 absorption.

Function of vitamin B 12

B 12 forms and regenerates red blood cells, thereby preventing anemia. It helps break down the amino acid homocysteine, lowering the risk of heart disease. B 12 promotes growth and increases appetite in children. It increases energy and protects your brain from shrinking with age. It helps slow macular degeneration and is an aid in alleviating depression, it also helps prevent and effectively treat canker sores. Helps maintain healthy nervous system. Helps properly utilize fats, carbohydrates and protein. B 12 relieves irritability improves concentration, memory and balance.
Small amounts (80 mcg) of B 12 help strengthen bones and aid in prevention of osteoporosis. Because B 12 is not absorbed well through the stomach it is recommended to use the sublingual form of the vitamin, or the time release form – accompanied by sorbitol, so that it can be assimilated in the small intestine. If you are vegan or vegetarian who has excluded eggs and dairy products from your diet, then you need B 12 supplementation.
If you are heavy drinker B 12 is an important supplement to you. Combined with folic acid B 12 can be a most effective revitaliser.
Surprisingly, heavy protein consumers may also need extra amounts of this vitamin, which works synergistically with almost all other B vitamins as well as vitamins A, E and C.
The ability to absorb B 12 declines with age, it’s recommended that adults over fifty obtain the RDA for this vitamin from supplements or fortified foods. Women may find B 12 helpful as a part of a B complex during and just prior to menstruation.

Foods rich in vitamin B12

Animal products are rich in B 12 like liver, beef, pork, eggs, milk, cheese and fish. Here is full list of foods high in B 12.
Supplements are available in a variety of strengths from 50 mcg to 10.000 mcg.
Doctors routinely give B 12 injections if there is a severe indication of deficiency or extreme fatigue, this method might be the supplementation that’s called for. Daily dosages most often used are 5-100 mcg

Signs of deficiency

Lack of B 12 can cause pernicious anemia and neurological disorders.
Symptoms of B 12 deficiency might take more than five years to appear after body stores have been depleted. In the human diet, vitamin B 12 is supplied primarily by animal products, since plant foods (with minor exceptions) don’t contain it.

Signs of excess

According to Earl Mindell’s New vitamin bible there have been no cases reported of vitamin B 12 toxicity, even on megadose regiments.

Recommended daily dosage

Adults 2 mcg
Pregnant 2.2 mcg
Nursing mothers 2.6 mcg
Recommended intakes for all age groups , RDA sheet.

To buy

Amazon
I-herb
Dr. Mercola

Further reading

Dr. Mercola
Facty health
Medical news today
Healthline

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplement

Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine

!00 grams of garlic have 1.24mg B6, curry powder 1.15mg and millet 0.75mg.

B6 is a group of substances pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, that are closely related and function together.
Like the other B vitamins, B6 is water soluble and it is gone through the system eight hours after ingestion, therefore it needs to be replaced by whole foods or supplements frequently.
Requirements are increased when diets high in protein are consumed. If you are on the pill you are more than likely to need increased amounts of B6.

Function of vitamin B6

For the production of antibodies it must be present. Required for the proper absorption of vitamin B12. Necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid and magnesium.
In combination with folic acid, it can break down the amino acid homocysteine, significantly lowering the risk of heart disease.
B6 can help prevent kidney stone formation and properly assimilate protein and fat. It is a aid in the conversion of tryptophan, an essential amino acid to niacin. It helps prevent various nervous and skin disorders. B6 can alleviate nausea and helps reduce dry mouth and urination problems caused by tricyclic antidepressants. It can reduce night muscle spasms, leg cramps and hand numbness, certain forms of neuritis in the extremities and it can work as a natural diuretic. B6 works best with vitamin B1, B2, B5, vitamin C and magnesium.

Foods rich in vitamin B6

Brewer’s yeast, wheat bran,wheat germ, liver, fish, soybeans, cantaloupe, cabbage, blackstrap molasses, unmilled rice, eggs, oats, peanuts and walnuts.
For a full list of foods that are rich in B6.

Signs of deficiency

Anemia, seborrheic dermatitis, glossitis.

Signs of excess

Daily doses of 2-10 grams can cause neurological disorders

Recommended daily dosage

Adults 1.6-2mg
Pregnant 2.2mg
Lactating 2.1mg
Here is a full list of recommended dosage in all age groups.

Readily available in wide range of dosages, from 50-500mg in individual supplements as well as in B- Complex and multivitamin formulas. To prevent deficiencies in other B vitamins, B6 should be taken in equal amounts with B1 and B2.

To buy

I-herb
Amazon

Further reading

Linus Pauling institute
Healthline
NIH
Mayo clinic
Science daily

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National health institute

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid (Panthenol, calcium pantothenate)

In 100grams there is 1.6mg in eggs, 1.5mg in oats , 1.36mg in lentils, 1.1 mg in brown rice and 1.04mg of B5 in 100g of peanut butter.

B5 is water soluble and another family member of the B complex family. B5 helps in cell building, maintaining normal growth and development of the central nervous system. It is vital for the proper functioning of the adrenal glands. Essential for conversion of fat and sugar to energy. Necessary for synthesis of antibodies for utilisation of PABA and choline.

Function of vitamin B5

B5 is an aid in wound healing, it fights infection by building antibodies. Treats post operative shock. Prevents fatigue. Reduce adverse and toxic effects of many antibiotics. Lower cholesterol and triglycerides.

Foods rich in vitamin B5

Meat, whole grains, bran, kidney, liver, heart ,green vegetables, brewers yeast, nuts, chicken, unrefined molasses. Here is a full list of foods that contain B5, Pantothenic acid.

Signs of deficiency

Hypoglycaemia, duo dermal ulcers, blood and skin disorders.

Signs of excess

Not known

Recommended daily dosage

5 mg for adults
For full table of dosage in all age groups

To buy

I-herb
Amazon

Further reading

Medical news today
NIH
Web MD
Video on B5
Dr. Osborne
Acne and B5, testimony from a mother.

References

  1. New Vitamin Bible Earl L. Mindell, Hachette Book Group, 2011
  2. NIH National Institutes of health,office of dietary supplements
  3. Medical news today

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