Vitamin B4 or Adenine is water soluble and a member of the B complex family. It acts as coenzyme with other vitamins to produce energy. Helps make up the code in DNA and RNA. Is important for cellular metabolism functions. Alcohol, cola, coffee, tea, chocolate, refined sugar, sugar substitutes and processed foods are enemies of adenine. If you are nursing, adenine can be helpful in improving lactation. People who tire easily or suffer from lack of energy may be helped by an increased intake of adenine.
Function of vitamin B4
Helps alleviate fatigue, aid in regulating heart arrhythmia, strengthens the immune system. Helps prevent the formation of free radicals and helps balance blood sugar levels. (1)
Foods rich in vitamin B4
Brewer’s yeast, whole grains, raw honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fruit and vegetables. May also be found in herbs as blessed thistle, blue cohosh, cayenne, cloves, ginger, kelp, sage and thyme.
No daily dosage established. B4 acts as a coenzyme with other vitamins to produce energy so it is most commonly found in B-complex formulas. Supplements called NADH are in fact Adenine and more coenzymes in tablet form.
The body produces this water solvent vitamin with the help of amino acid tryptophan. In case of deficiency of B1, B2 or B6 the body is not capable of producing niacin from tryptophan . It is recommended that vitamins B are taken together for better results. Niacin also called vitamin B3 helps turn the food you eat into the energy you need. Niacin is important for the development and function of the cells in your body. (1)(2)
Function of vitamin B3
B3 is essential in production of oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone sex hormones. B3 is essential for healthy nerves and healthy brain function it helps regulate cholesterol levels in the blood and reduces risk of cardio vascular diseases. Niacin supports the amount of good cholesterol in the body and can tribute to lovering blood pressure. It can help avoid or diminish migraine headaches. Can boost energy by helping with digestion and make skin smoother. Can help with oral soars and bad breath and supports epilepsy medication when niacin is taken alongside the medication. If you have high cholesterol niacin might help. If your skin is sensitive to sunlight it might indicate lack of niacin.
Foods rich in vitamin B3 Niacin
lean meat, fish, chicken, liver, kidneys, avocado, dates and prunes. Here is a full list of foods that contain niacin.
Signs of deficiency
Niacin deficiency causes pellagra. The main symptoms of pellagra are dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. This is because niacin deficiency is most noticeable in body parts with high rates of cell turnover, such as your skin or gastrointestinal tract.
Dermatitis related to pellagra usually causes a rash on the face, lips, feet, or hands. In some people, dermatitis forms around the neck, a symptom known as Casal necklace.
Additional dermatitis symptoms include:
red, flaky skin
areas of discoloration, ranging from red to brown
thick, crusty, scaly, or cracked skin
itchy, burning patches of skin
Lack of niacin can bring about negative personality changes(3)
Signs of excess
The niacin that food naturally contains is safe. However, dietary supplements with 30 mg or more of nicotinic acid can make the skin on your face, arms, and chest turn red and burn, tingle, and itch. These symptoms can also lead to headaches, rashes, and dizziness.
If you take nicotinic acid as a medication in doses of 1,000 or more mg/day, it can cause more severe side effects. These include:
Low blood pressure (which can increase the risk of falls)
Blurred or impaired vision and fluid buildup in the eyes
Long-term treatment, especially with extended-release forms of nicotinic acid, can cause liver problems, including hepatitis and liver failure.
Niacin in the form of nicotinamide has fewer side effects than nicotinic acid. However, at high doses of 500 mg/day or more, nicotinamide can cause diarrhea, easy bruising, and can increase bleeding from wounds. Even higher doses of 3,000 mg/day or more can cause nausea, vomiting, and liver damage.(4)
Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin, it dissolves in water and whatever is not needed passes out of the body in urine. That is the main reason why consumption of vitamin B2 is needed every day, because the body can only store small amounts, and supplies go down rapidly. Riboflavin occurs naturally in some foods, added to others, and it can be taken as supplements. Most of it is absorbed in the small intestine. Vitamin B2 helps break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s energy supply.
Function of vitamin B2
Along with vitamin A, vitamin B is essential for:
Maintaining the mucous membranes in the digestive system
Maintaining a healthy liver
Converting tryptophan into niacin, an amino acid
Keeping the eyes, nerves, muscles and skin healthy
Absorbing and activating iron, folic acid, and vitamins B1, B3 and B6
Hormone production by the adrenal glands
Preventing the development of cataracts
Fetal development, especially in areas where vitamin deficiency is common (1)
Foods rich in vitamin B2
As all other vitamins there are plenty of sources in our food for B2. Foods that are high in riboflavin B2 are yeast, liver, chicken, eggs, cheese, cilantro and more. Here is a full list of foods high in riboflavin. B2 does also come in supplements, note that for best result B vitamins should be taken together, in a B complex for best result.
“The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions.” (2)
Signs of deficiency
Vitamin B2 deficiency is a significant risk when diet is poor, because the human body excretes the vitamin continuously, so it is not stored. A person who has a B2 deficiency normally lacks other vitamins too.
There are two types of riboflavin deficiency:
Primary riboflavin deficiency happens when the person’s diet is poor in vitamin B2
Secondary riboflavin deficiency happens for another reason, maybe because the intestines cannot absorb the vitamin properly, or the body cannot use it, or because it is being excreted too rapidly
Riboflavin deficiency is also known as ariboflavinosis.
Signs and symptoms of deficiency include:
A lack of vitamin B2 can lead to mouth ulcers and other complaints.
Angular cheilitis, or cracks at the corners of the mouth
Eyes may be sensitive to bright light, and they may be itchy, watery, or bloodshot
People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol are at greater risk of vitamin B deficiency. Women taking birth control pills, pregnant or lactating need more B2. Those who eat little or no milk, cheese or meat should consider supplementing B2. All stress calls for more vitamin B2 and other vitamins in the B family.
Signs of excess
Normally, vitamin B2 is considered safe. An overdose is unlikely, as the body can absorb up to around 27 milligrams of riboflavin, and it expels any additional amounts in the urine.
However, it is important to talk to a physician before taking any supplements, especially as these can interfere with other medications.
Supplements can interact with other medications, and B2 supplements may impact the effectiveness of some drugs, such as anticholinergic medications and tetracycline.
Sometimes a doctor may recommend supplementation, for example, if a patient is using a drug that can interfere with the absorption of riboflavin.
Drugs that may interfere with riboflavin levels in the body include:
Doxorubicin, a drug used in cancer therapy, may deplete levels of riboflavin, and riboflavin may affect how doxorubicin works.
The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM) note that very high amounts of vitamin B2 may lead to itching, numbness, burning or prickling, yellow or orange urine and sensitivity to light. To prevent an imbalance of B vitamins, they suggest using a B-complex vitamin if supplementation is needed.(3)
Recommended daily dosage
7-10 years 1 mg men 1,8 mg women 1,6 mg pregnant women and lactating 1,8 mg
Vitamin B1, thiamin, or thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, as are all vitamins of the B family. Vitamins B work better when taken together than separately. For instance B1, B2, B6 in the same dosage (5mg). The need for vitamin B is more during illness, stress or surgery.Vitamin B is often referred to as the stress vitamin. Smokers, drinkers or those who eat sugar in excess need more Vitamin B1 than others. Women breastfeeding or pregnant are in great need of B1. Medicinal dosage of B1 is between 10-20 mg pr. week for few weeks.(1)
Function of vitamin B1
B1 is necessary for the nervous system, digestion and heart. It is connected to development of red blod cells and plays part in muscle growth, it enables the body to use carbohydrates as energy. It is essential for glucose metabolism. Vitamin B1, or thiamin, helps prevent complications in the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, stomach, and intestines. It helps prevent diseases such as beriberi, which involves disorders of the heart, nerves, and digestive system. B1 can minimise pain after oral surgery, it also supports treatment of herpes zoster. Can help with flight, car- and sea sickness and can tribute to a better general attitude. (1)
Foods rich in vitamin B1
B1 is found in pork, heart, liver, eggs whole wheat, whole grain, brown rice, nuts, seeds, soybeans, vegetables like cauliflower, potatoes and beets, asparagus, and kale. It is also found in oranges. Other sources include brewer’s yeast and blackstrap molasses.
Breakfast cereals and products made with white flour or white rice may be enriched with vitamin B, that was an initiative made to eliminate beriberi.
In the United States, people consume around half of their vitamin B1 intake in foods that naturally contain thiamin, while the rest comes from foods that are fortified with the vitamin.
Heating, cooking, and processing foods, and boiling them in water, destroy thiamin. As vitamin B1 is water-soluble, it dissolves into cooking water. White rice that is not enriched will contain only one tenth of the thiamin available in brown rice. Here is a full list of foods high in vitamin B1.
Signs of deficiency
A deficiency of vitamin B1 commonly leads to beriberi, a condition that features problems with the peripheral nerves and wasting.
There may be mental problems, including confusion and short-term memory loss.
Muscles may become weak, and cardiovascular symptoms can occur, for example, an enlarged heart.
Signs of excess
No known effects because all excess goes out with urine, and it does not build up in tissue. Rare side effects are edema , nervousness, increased heartbeat and allergies.
Recommended daily dosage
Ages 7-10 1 mg Men 1,4 mg women 1,1 mg pregnant women or lactating 1,5 mg
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) note that one serving of fortified breakfast cereal provides 1.5 milligrams (mg) of thiamin, which is more than 100 percent of the daily recommended amount. (1) (2) USDA, dietary guidelines.
One slice of whole wheat bread contains 0.1 mg, or 7 percent of the daily requirement. Cheese, chicken, and apples contain no thiamin.
Humans need a continuous supply of vitamin B1, because it is not stored in the body. It should be part of the daily diet. (1) (3)
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the body and need not be replenished every day. It requires fats as well as minerals to be properly absorbed by the digestive tract.
Fat-soluble means that if taken in large doses it will build up in the body tissue.There are two types of vitamin A that are found in the diet.
Preformed vitamin A, called retinol is found in animal products such as meat, fish, poultry and dairy foods.
Pro-vitamin A, known as carotene is found in plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables. The most common type of pro-vitamin A is beta-carotene. Pro-vitamin A must be converted into active vitamin A by the body.
Vitamin A is also available in dietary supplements. It most often comes in the form of retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate (preformed vitamin A), beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) or a combination of those.
Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, and mucus membranes. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A promotes good vision, especially in low light. It may also be needed for reproduction and breast-feeding. Retinol is an active form of vitamin A. It is found in animal liver,butter, cheese, whole milk, egg yolks, fish liver oils and some fortified foods.
Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called free radicals. Free radicals are believed to contribute to certain chronic diseases and play a role in the aging processes.
Diets containing food sources of carotenoids such as beta-carotene have been shown to reduce the risk for cancer.
On the other hand have beta-carotene supplements (isolated Beta-carotene in concentrated form) not seemed to reduce cancer risk.
Foods rich in vitamin A
Carotenoids are pigments found in plant foods that can turn into a form of vitamin A. There are more than 500 known carotenoids. One such carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is found in all red orange yellow and dark green fruits and vegetables as:
tomatoes and more
Here is a full list of foods that are high in vitamin A
Beta-carotene is powerful antioxidant protecting cells from oxidative damage, that later could lead to cancer. Beta-carotene can be converted into vitamin A as we need it. Unlike preformed vitamin A (retinol) beta-carotene does not exhibit the same clear toxic effects if excess doses are consumed.
In a study referred to as the AREDS study, “A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss.” It was concluded that persons older than 55 years that fit a certain criteria should consider taking a supplement of antioxidants plus zinc such as that used in the study.
When I was searching for a suitable domain for the vitamin and supplement blog. I was ecstatic to find that allvitamins.com was available. So I purchased it, I was horrified when I saw that I had spelled vitamins plural vitamines. It was a bit of a shock but as a marketing person I started to think what to do with this mistake. So here is the “official” story behind the misspelling.
When you take the word vitality and mines and put them together, you have got vitamines… so it serves the purpose of the blog perfectly, we are going to explore natures mines of vitality, the vitamins. So actually I am glad that I made this mistake at the beginning. The purpose of the blog is to dig into the world of supplements and vitamins and share with readers the findings. Do not hesitate to share your own opinions and findings. Thank you for reading, It really makes my day!
The answer is, yes they are. Doctors can determine deficiency with a blod test and treat patients with deficiency accordingly. As an example does lack of vitamin A cause blindness, lack of vitamin C scurvy and vitamin D deficiency is actually common. Unlike most other vitamins, getting enough vitamin D doesn’t depend solely on diet or supplements. Exposure to sunshine also contributes to a person’s daily production of vitamin D. Not having enough vitamin D in the body can cause a variety of problems. Bone weakness is one of the most serious. The use of supplements and vitamins is a controversial subject. Some say that we get everything we need if we eat balanced diets others say that we need to supplement what we eat with vitamins and supplements. How can we know what is right? I think we can not. We have to try out and decide what is beneficial for us. If we take something and it makes us feel better. Why not? It is easy to ask the doctor for directions, they take a simple blod test that can tell us if we need some supplements or not.
In this documentary the benefits of vitamins and supplements are under the microscope. In the documentary the work of Linus Pauling and his research is mentioned, Pauling is the man who claimed that large doses of vitamin C could help us fight diseases and created a craze for vitamin C . There is still a high controversy regarding his findings some positive and others not. Linus Pauling won a Nobel price two times, first in 1954 for chemistry and the Nobel peace prize in 1962. Pauling died 1994 at the age of 93, that might be a indicator that his theory worked out, at least for him.
It is a site for general information and I want to use my knowledge to help life science students. I am here to help students in finding research topics, assignment and thesis writing. I can provide subject related notes to Medical laboratory technology (MLT), Molecular biology and Biotechnology students. I can help students in solving problems related to Molecular biology and diagnostics techniques.